In The Beginning
In the beginning, tossed salad was a
foraged food of necessity. Those who got passed the dirt and
occasional snake noticed they felt better, smelt better and even lived a
An ice age or two later, a salad
finally gets its name from the Romans who's favorite dressing is sal,
salt—lot's of salt.
William Shakespeare's Desk - 1607
The year, 1607. Looking for a
phrase to describe times of youthful inexperience, Elizabethan
wordsmith, Will Shakespeare coins the phrase, "Salad Days."
Road to Louis XIV
French Oil Vendor
French Vinegar Maker
Rushing to serve the salad crazed
Louis XIV, an oil vendor and vinegar maker share a carriage ride and
make a discovery. [the carriage hits a bump and some of
the oil and vinegar splash in to each vendor's container]
OIL VENDOR: Heh, oy.
VINEGAR MAKER: Idiot.
VM: You've, you've gotten your greasy oil inside my beautiful vinegar.
OV: You're smelly, stinky white stuff into my wonderful oil, heh.
VM & OV: Oooooooooh! [they both pull out a celery stick, dip it in their
liquid and take a bite.]
OV: Hey, that's not bad.
VM: It's perfect.
Some 300 years later, a Chicago
restaurateur has an idea and changes the salad world forever. [the camera leans
too close to the salad bar and bumps into the sneeze guard]
Restaurant - 1990s
The innovative 90's have brought the
salad full circle. [a waiter brings a "unique" salad to AB's table] Oh, with a side of curried boysenberry
vinaigrette ... oh my. You know, in French 'salad' also means
"mess" and I say, well, if the shoe fits you must
Join us as we decipher the much maligned and over
wrought tossed salad. We'll tour the world of greens, contemplate
the deep recesses of your crisper drawer, check out some got-to-have tools and
dress properly for dinner. I may have my doubts about this ["salad" in
front of him], but
this, I'm sure, is Good Eats.
Field of Greens
Harry's Farmers Market
The way we see it, the salad universe
splits into two distinct galaxies: the mild sweet lettuces and the loose
federation of chicory, watercress, escarole, radicchio, endive, arugula ... what I call the
Mean Greens. The art in all of this is to
personalize the mix, to find the balance that leads you to salad
Don't feel like head hunting? Cut and cleaned
mixes are the salad bowl trend of the day. From the old Provençal
word for mixture, mesclun was originally an intricate but balanced blend of about
12, maybe, 15 young greens. These days just about any young mixture
gets called mesclun—whether it is or not—often with mixed results. Still, if it's fresh and sold loose like this, mesclun can be an
excellent value, especially if you're trying to get into the exotic
green pool one foot at a time. But be careful about prepackaged or
bagged mesclun mixes. It's very fragile and perishable and so
often the pretty picture you get in the front of the window isn't what's
going on inside the bag.
Star Route Farms, Northern California
GUEST: Doug Gallagher, Organic Farms
Want to know what fresh greens should
look like in your produce department? Well, as much like this as
possible. [indicates the green plants in front of him] I mean, just look at this head of butter crisp lettuce.
It's perfect. The leaves are crisp. There are no blemishes
anywhere. It's just perfect. It holds it's shape when it's
moved around, no slimy spots. This is Grade A produce. This
is what you should look for in any lettuce, really, whether it's a tight
head or a loose head.
Now, admittedly, some lettuces are never going to be
this crisp. There are some more delicate greens. For
instance, this frisee is a much looser head and it's never going to be
as crisp as the butter crisp, but it does have a lot of the same
characteristics. There are no blemishes, the color is bright, the
leaves are crisp even though they are delicate. And above all,
there's no wilting. It's a great head of lettuce. Oh, these
white caps, by the way, are put on just a few days before harvest so
that the heart will turn white. It's a French thing.
Now, heavy ribbed heads like romaine and this loose
head radicchio should stand up straight without any signs of cracks
along the ribs. Now wilted goods are either old or damaged and
while many greens can be revived—to a point—by soaking in cold water,
off specimens are never fully going to recover.
Take time to look closely at your prospective salad
fodder. Feel the leaves. And if nobody's looking just go
ahead and, uh, take a bite. [takes a bite]
DOUG GALLAGHER: [walks up] So what are you eating?
Busted like Benjamin
AB: Um, nothing. You must be Doug Gallagher.
DG: I am.
AB: Pleasure. Uh, nice organic spread you got going here.
DG: Thank you.
AB: So, Doug, what does a guy like you have to do to grow lettuce like
DG: Well, we take care of the soil, first thing, and that grows a better
AB: That makes sense.
DG: We use a lot of compost and build the soil. We also use rock
powders and oyster shells and then cover-cropping in the
AB: So, you just turn that in. It's like raising your own
AB: Wow. How can people at home make sure that they buy the best.
DG: Buying locally is good, Farmer's Markets or farm stands and ask your
grocer, produce man, you know.
AB: Okay, so come clean, Doug. Do you eat your vegetables? Do you eat your salad?
DG: I sure do. Frisee and arugula.
AB: Good deal. You've got it going.
Okay, so maybe you're not buying
organic frisee every day or nettles or radicchio or butter crisp lettuce.
But, even that hearty head of iceberg deserves some respect, so be
gentle, will you? I mean, salad greens are, well, they're a lot
like nitroglycerin. They're not going to tolerate rough handling
in the field, in the store and they're not going to tolerate it at home.
So be gentle.
The Average American
eats 30 Lbs. of lettuce a year.
GUEST: The Mad Chef
[holding a container] This is how much carbon dioxide a 1
lb. head of lettuce can exhale while you're at work. That's right. Even after harvest, greens, especially lettuces, go on about their
business metabolizing nutrients and breathing. So if you want the
greens that you bought on Monday to make it through to see Sunday, you're
going to have to force them into a kind of suspended animation; which, as
anyone who's ever seen a science fiction movie can tell you, involves a
Bath time. Fill a sink with about as much cold
water as it will hold. Now, remember, lettuce grows in dirt and
believe it or not by the time you get it home its still got a lot of
dirt with it. Filling the sink all the way will allow us to get
the dirt off of the lettuce and let it sink to the bottom of the sink.
Most lettuces will last longer if the leaves are left
intact. But some hearty heads like this radicchio and this romaine
you can cut with a knife.
THE MAD CHEF: What are you
doing? You should never cut zee
greens with a knife. Tear zee
AB: [cuts the greens with a knife]
Heh, heh. Well, this is what
he's talking about. See, all the leaves of greens and lettuces are
basically little bitty cellulose boxes that are full of water. It's kind
of like this bubble wrap. Just pretend that these are full of water
instead of air. When you cut
a leave—well, besides looking like
Norman Bates—you breach some of the cells. Now, on a softer more
fragile leaf this would result in bruising, a kind of darkening along
the edge of the cut which is ugly and gummy.
But, if you tear the same leaf, the leaves just split
right along the cell boundary. So if you're prepping delicate
stuff, either tear it or leave them whole until you serve them. Hearty leaves like romaine, go ahead and
cut. Don't worry about
what Chef said. Just be sure you slice, don't hack.
Washing isn't just about coming clean. It's
about rehydrating, loading up the leaves with plenty of moisture so
they'll stay crisp during their long nap in the refrigerator. You're going to be surprised how even badly wilted greens can bounce
back after a 20 minute cold soak. You might also be surprised at
how much dirt there is in the bottom of the sink. I've heard of
vitamins and minerals but that's ridiculous. So, give these about a 2 to 3 minute drain then take
them for a spin.
Bed Bath & Beyond: 11:27 am
GUEST: "W", Equipment Specialist
As we have now seen, moisture inside
the greens good, but moisture on the greens, bad. That's why we're
here meeting up with our equipment specialist, W.
W: What you need is a spinner.
AB: My thoughts exactly.
W: Pay attention, will you?
AB: A spinner is a centrifuge. You know? Like a spin cycle
in your washing machine?
W: It's the best way to dry greens fast. The difference
between makes and models usually revolves around the drive
AB: [is pulling the handle on a model that uses a "start" cord like a
can't get this one to
W: This is my favorite. It utilizes a spring loaded
AB: Ha, oh. Archimedes. Of course.
W: Just push it a couple of times and it even has a brake.
AB: So, greens all dry ...
AB: ... wet water stuff here [in the lower bowl]. I'll take
it. Wonderful job. But, uh,
you know you really
should get the lawn mower
Now that the spin cycle is finishing
up, there's one last step to suspended lettuce animation and that's
oxygen depravation. After all, greens won't rot so fast if they
can't breathe and they can't breathe if, well, there's no air. So
just spread the greens out on a single layer of paper towel and then
roll them up loosely. Now we're going to pop this whole thing into
a heavy, resealable kitchen bag. Now, the towel is going to wick
away any surface moisture and then slowly give it back as the greens
need it. Squeeze out as much air as you can without crushing the
greens and then just use a regular straw to suck out the rest. Laminated
lettuce. Perfect for holiday gift giving.
The darker the leaf the
more nutritious the green.
The Zen of the Vin
So how many cooks does it take to
make salad dressing? Well, there's an old kitchen proverb that
says, three: you've got a miser for the vinegar, a spendthrift for the oil
and wise man for the salt. The dressing in question, of course, is
the martini of the salad world, the vinaigrette; that ethereal coupling
of oil and wine which through the metabolic activity of acidic bacteria
has become vinegar.
But the problem with oil and vinegar is that they're
a lot like Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton or this stuff inside this
Lava Lamp. See, they don't really get along. It's a surface
tension thing. See, oil wants to spread out and coat everything in
the place while vinegar wants to bead up and roll away like rain on a
freshly waxed car hood.
Now, they can be coerced into working together. Um, the addition of an emulsifier, for instance, like egg yolk or
mustard would do the trick. But when all else fails, brute force
will do the trick. The problem is like Liz and Dick's first 3
marriages, this union is temporary.
I build my vinaigrettes in a 1953 cocktail shaker
given to me by Dean Martin. Dean and I went to college together. His dad was a
bartender. You can use any lidded container but
glass is best because it doesn't hold on to flavors the way plastic does.
See, plastic and fats have certain molecular similarities
which is why it's so hard to get, say, bacon fat off a bicycle seat.
adjust for personal taste, but the classic rule of thumb for
vinaigrette is a 3-to-1, oil-to-vinegar ratio. But more
important than the ratio is the process itself. You want to
start with everything but the oil. In this case, I'm going to
start with two ounces Red Wine Vinegar—that's a quarter cup, you
know—and two teaspoons of smooth Dijon mustard. We're
going to use a fat pinch of kosher salt, two crushed cloves of
garlic and a little bit of black pepper.
2 oz Wine Vinegar
2 tsp Dijon
2 Cloves Garlic
Now the point here is to dissolve the salt and
integrate the mustard into the vinegar. Now since oil isn't
technically wet, this is easier done in its absence. Now since we
started with two ounces of vinegar we're going to add oil up to the
eight ounce or one cup mark and then we'll give it just a little extra
shot for the mustard. That's going to get us up to a 3-to-1 ratio.
Now, shake with vigor. This is the forced part
of the equation. See, the more you shake the more the vinegar
breaks up into tiny droplets. When enough of these droplets have
been suspended in the oil, the mixture will thicken to the consistency
of cream. Now, the mustard, as you can see here, has not been
invited for flavor alone. Mustard is made up of tiny, solid
particles suspended in liquid. When all these little bits, these
particles, block the vinegar droplets from joining together and sinking
to the bottom of the glass the mustard is acting as an emulsifier. Think of it as the glue that keeps the oil and the vinegar working
Vinaigrettes can also be
emulsified with pureed vegetables.
Dressing For Dinner
Nothing, well almost nothing, is more
repulsive than a salad swimming in a pool of watered down dressing. Yech.
Now, by properly prepping and storing our greens we've got
that one beat. See, dressings stick to dry leaves better than they
do to wet leaves so not only do dry leaves make better tasting salads,
they also can do the job with a lot less dressing. Now, you can
get by with just a teaspoon per serving. Just put the dressing in
the bottom of the bowl.
Now, time to introduce the greens. I've got
about 4 servings here and it's time to toss. But with what? [holds
his hand] When properly cleaned, these are the best friends
delicate greens ever had. Just think of your hand as a big, soft
fork and just fold. Let gravity do the rest. That's it. Now,
when all the leaves looked coated, just shiny, you're done.
Restaurants keep their salad plates chilled and
so should you. Cold plates help keep greens stay crisp longer. So, your salad will thank you.
Here's the last big tip. Serve this right away. Make sure the diners meet their chairs before the greens meet the
dressing. See, no pool of dressing left in the bottom of the
bowl. We didn't over dress for dinner.
Club Caesar Salad
GUESTS: Maître D' / Waiter
Caesar Salad Date #1
Caesar Salad Date #2
Welcome to Club Caesar Salad.
Granddad out bowling tonight? Good. Kids tucked in bed? Excellent. Please join us won't
you? After all, we think
tCaesar Salad is a salad best enjoyed by consenting adults.
You know, it all started back in 1924 when Chef Caesar
Cardini's Tijuana eatery was jumping with prohibition-weary Hollywood
big wigs looking for a good time. Things got so heavy that Chef
Caesar decided to cut his kitchen staff some slack and come up with a
new special, one that would be prepared at table and eaten with the
hands which made him very popular with the dishwashers.
Now, the dish was a salad and it was simplicity
incarnate. It all began with the inner leaves of two heads of
Romaine lettuce dressed simply with a bit of extra virgin olive oil, the
juice of one lemon, two maybe three dashes of
Worcestershire sauce, and
a quarter cup of grated parmesan cheese.
CAESAR SALAD DATE #1: What about the anchovies?
MAÎTRE D': Uh, no. Sorry. Never anchovies in Caesar Salad. But, there will be a lovely dressing. And the pièce de résistance, garlic
croutons. You'll excuse me, won't you?
So I ask this French woman, why is
it you guys hold American cooks in such low esteem. She looks
right at me and she says, "vous achetez des croûtons."
"You buy croutons." Huuh! Well, not any more I
don't and neither should you. It all starts with a day-old loaf of
Italian bread. Just cut it into cubes, 1/2 to 3/4 inch is fine. Put the whole thing in a 350°
oven. You don't want them to color or
get hard, just dry out a little bit.
put on a small sauce pan of water to boil, that's for the eggs,
the dressing, later, and then mash up about three cloves of garlic
with, let's say, 4 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil and half a
teaspoon of kosher salt. If you don't have a mortar and
pestle it's okay just punch up the garlic with whatever you have
2 cups bread cubes
3 cloves garlic
4 Tbsp XV olive oil
Pinch kosher salt
When the croutons are dry, strain the
oil into a skillet over medium heat and then fry the croutons tossing
constantly until all the oil is absorbed and they take on a golden color.
Your mouth will water from the smell of garlic I promise. Remove when they're done, and cool.
When the water comes to a boil, add your room
temperature eggs for exactly one minute.
Shortly after it's
invention, Caesar's Salad was hailed by the International
Society of Epicures as America's greatest dish in 50 years.
Then chill them to stop the cooking.
Club Caesar Salad
Now, the thing I like best about Caesars is that
it's a process better shared with people at the table. So, once
you've got all your ingredients in place, start off by, well, telling a
nice joke or maybe some witty repartee.
MD: "You look lovely tonight." "How long has your hair been
like that." "Ooo, nice tie."
Stuff like that.
Anyway, once you do face the salad we'll begin
with just about two tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil, not the cheap
stuff. This is the time to get out the good stuff. But no
more than two tablespoons. The point, right now at least, is to
just start to coat the leaves. This is a dressing that gets built
stage by stage onto the leaves.
MD: "How are the kids?" "Doing well in school?" "How do you like that new Valare Wagon?" That kind of thing.
Now, once you've got the olive oil on, you're going
to season the leaves with a heavy pinch of kosher salt. You can go
with a little less if you use sea salt and if you decide to use regular
table salt, well just don't make Caesars at all, then. And, seven
grinds of pepper. Coarse, of course. Toss again. No,
that's not too much pepper. We'll add the last part of the olive
oil, about another, well, one maybe two tablespoons—again, it's the good
stuff—and toss again.
MD: "Have you met the new neighbors?" "How are they?" "Yes, their dog barks very
loudly." Yada, yada, yada.
Now, we're going to add the acid part of the
dressing. Lemon juice. One whole lemon, just wring it right
over the salad. If you happen to get a seed in there, don't worry. Won't hurt
anybody. And after the lemon, three shots of
Worcestershire sauce. And this is actually why a lot of people
think that there are anchovies in Caesars because there are anchovies in
Worcestershire sauce. One, two, three. Whoa. That's enough. That'll do
it. And, toss again just briefly.
And now we come to the egg portion of the program, our
two coddled eggs. One minute eggs ... not completely raw but they're
certainly not done enough to be called cooked. Now, eggs can, in
at least the last few years, carry salmonella and IF you happen to get
the, say, 1 in 20,000 eggs that are infected and IF you happen to store
it badly, say, holding it at the wrong temperature for too long or
cooking it too early and leaving it around the house for a couple of
days, you could, maybe, get sick. But that's an awful lot of 'ifs'.
So, toss just until you see this beautiful kind of
creamy dressing come together. See that? Lovely. Just
toss until you see that. Then we're going to grate on the cheese, about a
1/4 cup of Parmesan. You can use Romano if you like, but I like
the tradition so I'm going to go with parm.
And then, the reason Caesars should exist, the garlic
croutons. Hold a little back for the cook to eat in the kitchen later
and toss once again. That is a salad that Caesar would be proud of.
Club Caesar Salad
Built with care, the Caesar Salad is
the perfect amalgam of flavors. You've got the crisp sweetness of
the lettuce, the saltiness of the cheese, the kind of earthy creaminess
of the dressing, its pretty much perfect. But, I think what I like
best about it is the making of it. It's not like some recipes that
you put together like a bad bookshelf kit. It goes together like a
dance, and it's a dance that will definitely leave your guests in the
mood for some seriously good eats as well as whatever the evening may
bring. See you next time.
[voice over] Visit us on the web www.foodtv.com.